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This book looks at the four main, and two lesser, English centres known for instrument production outside the capital: Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester and Sheffield, along with the older population centres in Bristol and York. Making wide use of new sources, Dr Morrison-Low, curator of history of science at the National Museums of Scotland, charts the growth of these centres and provides a characterisation of their products. New information is provided on aspects of the trade, especially marketing techniques, sources of materials, tools and customer relationships. From contemporary evidence, she argues that the principal output of the provincial trade (with some notable exceptions) must have been into the London marketplace, anonymously, and at the cheaper end of the market. She also discusses the structure and organization of the provincial trade, and looks at the impact of new technology imported from other closely-allied trades.
Contents: Chapter 1: Making scientific instruments in the Industrial Revolution Chapter 2: Bristol and Liverpool Chapter 3: York and Sheffield Chapter 4: Manchester and Birmingham Chapter 5: Smaller centres and individuals Chapter 6: The London Trade Chapter 7: Industrial Organisation and Production outside London Chapter 8: Supply Chapter 9: Demand Chapter 10: Conclusions Appendix 1: English instrument makers based outside London in four centres Bibliography Index